Year II

Course Requirements


AN 2102 Human Neuroanatomy

The developmental, gross and functional anatomy of the human nervous system is presented with a focus on the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. Particular emphasis is placed on the functional relationships between structures along with the clinical significance of these structures to a practicing chiropractor.

AN 2106 Human Gross Anatomy: Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis

Gross anatomy is explored with a focus on thorax, abdomen and pelvic regions. A regional approach is used with emphasis on the functional relationships between structures, in particular the musculoskeletal system and its joints, along with the clinical significance of these structures to a practicing chiropractor.

AN 2203 Clinical Biomechanics

Link-segment analysis, with sample calculations, is explained in preparation for discussion of normal and pathological mechanics of the joints of the lower extremities. The biomechanics of cycling, gait, footwear, foot orthotics, carrying a backpack, and the functional activities of throwing and kicking are presented with emphasis on incorrect technique and its relationship to pathological conditions.

CD 2201 Introductory Diagnosis for Chiropractic Practice II

History taking skills are developed and physical examination techniques of the neurological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary systems are explored.

CD 2302 Orthopaedics for Chiropractic Practice II

The relevant clinical anatomy, pathology, lesions and pathogenesis, diagnostic categories, current diagnostic tests and methods, and treatment strategies for the upper and lower limb and tempero-mandibular joint are reviewed. The response to injury of normal musculoskeletal tissues in the extremities is discussed. Differential diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal pain syndromes, and an understanding of the role of chiropractic diagnostics and therapeutics in a variety of musculoskeletal disorders are developed.

CE 2202 Chiropractic Clinical Practice II

Current clinical and practical issues in chiropractic specifically, and health care in general are explored. The opportunity to build upon the knowledge gained in other areas of the academic program and to develop an enhanced appreciation for the application of evidence informed practice management principles is provided.

CP 2410 Chiropractic Practice: Clinical Theories, Ideologies and Therapies

A variety of chiropractic techniques are presented from the perspective of the historical development, the philosophy of the techniques, their diagnostic methodologies and treatment protocols. Other complementary and alternative health care disciplines and their potential benefit to patient care are also reviewed. Students are encouraged throughout the course to critically appraise the techniques and the systems of healing.

CT 2204 Chiropractic Skills II

The skills associated with conducting a comprehensive examination (postural assessment, joint challenge, motion palpation, joint pain provocation) of the spine, pelvis and extremities continue to be honed. The adjustive procedures taught in the previous year are reinforced and a substantive number of additional procedures are introduced. In addition, joint mobilization and soft tissue procedures are taught for each region of the musculoskeletal system. The approach used to correlate examination findings, arrive at a diagnosis and formulate a treatment protocol is introduced.

CT 2205 Rehabilitation in Chiropractic Practice: A Regional Approach

The following occupational and disability management issues are presented: Contemporary use of exercise for the rehabilitation and functional restoration of the musculoskeletal system; planning, prescribing, and monitoring exercise programs; indications for therapeutic exercise prescription and concepts of exercise progression; and the chiropractor’s role in functional recovery.

DI 2201 Diagnostic Imaging Interpretation for Chiropractic Practice II

A comprehensive introduction to radiographic interpretation of normal, variant and pathological states of the extremities is provided. Specific disease processes including tumours and tumour like lesions, infections of bone, metabolic/endocrine disorders and vascular conditions are explored. Fractures, dislocations and soft tissue injury of the entire skeletal system are discussed. Advanced imaging procedures, as appropriate, and film quality assessment and radiation dose are considered.

PA 2203 Patho-Immunology

The role of innate and acquired immunity in maintaining health is discussed through topics including immunoregulation, infections, vaccination and neuroendocrine immunology. The basic mechanisms involved in cell death, necrosis, inflammation, tissue, repair, immunologic disorders and neoplasia are presented. The relationship between these processes, clinical presentation and rationale for treatment are discussed.

PA 2205 Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

The fundamental concepts of bacteriology, virology, parasitology and mycology are introduced. The classification and characteristics of infectious organisms are described and the concepts of virulence, pathogenicity, disease transmission, and the principles of prevention including immunization are discussed. Pathogenic microorganisms are introduced and discussed in the context of mechanism of disease production as well as clinical consequences. The course ends with a series of case presentations designed to integrate information learned about various pathogens with a focus on overlapping signs and symptoms of disease, differential diagnosis, and management strategies. Microbial morphology and, where appropriate, culture characteristics are studied in the laboratory and case presentations are used to highlight clinical applications.

PA 2306 Toxicopharmacology

The general principles of molecular and clinical pharmacology, with emphasis on pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacodynamics, receptor pharmacology and the quantification of drug action are introduced. Key topics of toxicology are related to the clinical setting and exposure to the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs likely to be encountered in the chiropractic clinic are presented.

PH 2204 Systems Physiology

The physiology of body fluids, blood, and the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems; the function and control of all major organ systems; cell physiology and mechanisms at the cellular and sub-cellular levels; muscle performance, training and fitness assessments; and the application of physiological principles to chiropractic practice are presented.

PH 2205 Neuroscience for Chiropractic Practice

Chemical, anatomical and physiological components of the sensory, motor and autonomic nervous systems are discussed and integrated with chiropractic principles where applicable. Cranial nerves, development and aging of the nervous system, the cerebral cortex and higher cortical function, and diseases of the central nervous system are presented.

PH 2206 Biochemistry II, Health and Wellness

Basic nutrients and their roles within the body, and the importance of supplements in the prevention and treatment of a variety of conditions seen in chiropractic practice are presented.

RM 2301 Investigative Project — Topic Development

Students working in small groups identify an appropriate faculty supervisor and register a clinical research topic for their literature synthesis with the Research Methodologist. Research ethics training is provided through either the Tri-Council Policy Statement or National Institutes of Health resources, and online support is available.