Link-segment analysis, with sample calculations, is explained in preparation for discussion of normal and pathological mechanics of the joints of the lower extremity. The biomechanics of cycling, gait, footwear, foot orthotics, carrying a backpack, and the functional activities of throwing and kicking are presented with emphasis on incorrect technique and its relationship to pathological conditions.
The skills associated with conducting a comprehensive examination (postural assessment, joint challenge, motion palpation, joint pain provocation) of the spine, pelvis and extremities continue to be honed. The adjustive procedures taught in the previous year are reinforced and a substantive number of additional procedures are introduced. In addition, joint mobilization and soft tissue procedures are taught for each region of the musculoskeletal system. The approach used to correlate examination findings, arrive at a diagnosis and formulate a treatment protocol is introduced.
Contemporary use of exercise for the rehabilitation and functional restoration of the musculoskeletal system; planning, prescribing, and monitoring exercise programs; indications for therapeutic exercise prescription and concepts of exercise progression; and, the chiropractor’s role in functional recovery as it pertains to occupational issues and disability management are presented.
A variety of chiropractic techniques are presented from the perspective of the historical development, the philosophy of the technique, the diagnostic methodologies and treatment protocols. Other complementary and alternative health care disciplines and their potential benefit to patient care are also reviewed. Students are encouraged throughout the course to critically appraise the techniques and the systems of healing.
Gross anatomy is explored with a focus on lower limb, thorax, abdomen, and pelvic regions. A regional approach is used with emphasis on the functional relationships between structures, in particular, the musculoskeletal system and its joints, along with the clinical significance of these structures to a practicing chiropractor.
The developmental, gross and functional anatomy of the human nervous system is presented with a focus on the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. Particular emphasis is placed on the functional relationships between structures along with the clinical significance of these structures to a practicing chiropractor.
The histological and developmental structure of the human body is presented with a focus on the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the functional relationships between structures, along with the clinical significance of these structures to a practicing chiropractor.
History taking skills are developed and physical examination techniques of the neurological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary systems are explored.
The relevant clinical anatomy, pathology, lesions and pathogenesis, diagnostic categories, current diagnostic tests and methods, and treatment strategies for the upper and lower limb and tempero mandibular joint are reviewed. The response to injury of normal musculoskeletal tissues in the extremities is discussed. Differential diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal pain syndromes, and an understanding of the role of chiropractic diagnostics and therapeutics in a variety of musculoskeletal disorders are developed.
Current clinical and practical issues in chiropractic specifically, and health care in general are explored. The opportunity to build upon the knowledge gained in other areas of the academic program and to develop an enhanced appreciation for the application of evidence informed practice management principles is provided.
Concepts and scientific evidence for the various chiropractic theories are presented with neuroanatomy, neuroscience, and general physiology serving as background knowledge. Application of these theories to chiropractic practice is made wherever appropriate.
The basic mechanisms involved in cell death, necrosis, inflammation and repair, and neoplasia are presented. The understanding of the pathological principles of disease processes to further the understanding of the clinical manifestations of disease and the rationale for treatment are discussed. Clinic-pathological correlations are emphasized where applicable.
Concepts of bacteriology, virology, parasitology and mycology are introduced. The classification and characteristics of infectious organisms are described and the concepts of virulence, pathogenicity, disease transmission, and the principles of prevention including immunization are discussed. An introduction is made to pathogenic microorganisms and their role in the production of infectious diseases. An appreciation of bacterial morphology and culture characteristics is developed. Fungal morphology and diagnostic parasitic stages are demonstrated.
The organization and constituents of the immune system are explored. The role of innate and acquired immunity in defence against infections and maintaining health is discussed, including immunoregulation, vaccination, neuroendocrine immunology, and selected clinical conditions that are immunologic in nature.
Students are introduced to the general principles of molecular and clinical pharmacology, with emphasis on pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacodynamics, receptor pharmacology, and the quantification of drug action. Students relate key topics of toxicology to the clinical setting and are exposed to the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs they are likely to encounter in the chiropractic clinic.
The physiology of body fluids, blood, and the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems; the function and control of all major organ systems; cell physiology and mechanisms at the cellular and sub-cellular levels; muscle performance, training and fitness assessments; and the application of physiological principles to chiropractic practice are presented.
Chemical, anatomical and physiological components of the sensory, motor and autonomic nervous systems are discussed and integrated with chiropractic principles where applicable. Cranial nerves, development and aging of the nervous system, the cerebral cortex and higher cortical function, and diseases of the central nervous system are presented.
Basic nutrients and their roles within the body, and the importance of supplements in the prevention and treatment of a variety of conditions seen in chiropractic practice are presented.
Students form groups, find an appropriate faculty supervisor, and register a clinical research topic for their literature synthesis with the Research Methodologist. Research ethics training is provided through either TRI Council or NIH resources, and online support is available.
A comprehensive introduction to radiographic interpretation of normal, variant, and pathological states of the extremities is provided. Specific disease processes including tumours and tumour like lesions, infections of bone, metabolic/endocrine disorders and vascular conditions are explored. Fractures, dislocations, and soft tissue injury of the entire skeletal system are covered. Special imaging procedures, as appropriate, and film quality assessment and radiation dose are considered.